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# Reversible process entropy

Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes Suppose that the heat absorbed by the system and heat lost by the surrounding are under completely reversible conditions. In other words, q. rev. is the heat absorbed and lost by the surrounding at temperature T, then we can say that the entropy change in the system will be given by the following relation Adiabatic process. An adiabatic process is a process which takes place without transfer of heat (Q = 0). Since the gas does not exchange heat, we have: A reversible adiabatic process is also known as isentropic process, since the entropy of the system does not change We know that the freezing of water at meting point is a reversible process. Calculation of entropy for the system (the water) and surrounding for this freezing process is simply heat divided by melting temperature. The total entropy change of this process is thus zero, demonstrating the statement of the second law of thermodynamics

A reversible process changes the state of a system in such a way that the net change in the combined entropy of the system and its surroundings is zero Then, when entropy was defined, I was told the definition of a reversible process is $\Delta S=0$. However, in the book Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Statistical Thermodynamics, by F.W. Sears and G.L. Salinger , they define the variation of entropy of a reversible cycle as $\Delta S \equiv \frac{dQ}{T}$ In a reversible process, the entropy change of the system and surroundings are equal and opposite. In an irreversible process, we generate extra entropy. We can assign that extra irreversible entropy either to the system or to the surroundings During reversible process the entropy of the system does not increase and the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its surroundings. In reality, there are no truly reversible processes. All real thermodynamic processes are somehow irreversible. They are not done infinitely slowly No. Entropy change in reversible process. let an isothermal reversibel process. here the system absorb q amount of heat from the surroundings at T temperature. Hence increase in entropy = change in S(system) = +q/t on the other hand change in entr.. Because entropy is a state function, the change in entropy of the system is the same, whether the process is reversible or irreversible. The second law of thermodynamics can be used to determine whether a process is reversible or not. Intuitively, a process is reversible if there is no dissipation Heat transferred reversibly, divided by the temperature at which it is transferred, is a state variable. This quantity is known as entropy, S, in J/K, and is defined as the heat transferred in a reversible process, divided by the temperature at which this happens: dS = dQrev T

• Processes can be classed as reversible or irreversible. of a reversible process is an important one which directly relates to our ability to recognize, evaluate, and reduce irreversibilities in practical engineering processes
• Entropy change in an irreversible process. Entropy is a state function and ∆S, in going from an initial state A to a final state B, is always the same and is independent of the path followed. It makes no difference whether the path is reversible or irreversible. For a reversible path, the entropy change is given by
• Let us see now the change in entropy for a reversible process and also for an irreversible process Let us consider the following figure, a system is going from state 1 to state 2 by following the path A, we have assumed here that path A is reversible process
• Since the change in internal energy and enthalpy, which are equal to the heats for a constant-volume and constant-pressure process, respectively, are state functions, the heats for a reversible v.s. irreversible process should be equal
• This video contains explanation of entropy change in an irreversible process.The entropy of gas after free expansion increases. In other words, the entropy o..
• case of a reversible process remains constant (it never decreases). This is known as the increase of entropy principle. The entropy change of a system or its surroundings can be negative; but entropy generation cannot. 0 impossible process 0 reversible process 0 irreversible process Sge

The entropy of reversible process: We know that the freezing of water at the meting point is a reversible process. Calculation of entropy for the system (the water) and surrounding for this freezing process is simply heat divided by melting temperature Change of Entropy in Reversible ProcessWatch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htmLecture By: Er. Himanshu Vasishta, Tutoria..

### Calculation of the entropy change in reversible processe

• process is reversible and always positive when the process is irreversible. Thus, one can say that the system develops sourceswhich create entropy during an irreversible process. The second law asserts that sinksof entropy are impossible in nature, which is a more graphic way of saying tha
• Calculates the entropy change for water in an irreversible process using steam tables. Made by faculty at the University of Colorado Boulder, Department of C..
• It is a reversible adiabatic process. An isentropic process can also be called a constant entropy process. An isentropic process is a thermodynamic process, in which the entropy of the fluid or gas remains constant. It means the isentropic process is a special case of an adiabatic process in which there is no transfer of heat or matter
• Muddiest Point { Entropy and Reversible I am confused about entropy and how it is di erent in a reversible versus irreversible case. Note: Some of the discussion below follows from the previous muddiest points comment on the general idea of a reversible and an irreversible process. You may wish to have a look at that comment before reading this. ### Entropy of reversible process - FutureLear

There are two main types of thermodynamic processes: the reversible process and the irreversible processes. The reversible process is an ideal process that never occurs in nature while the irreversible process is the natural process which is more commonly found in nature. Let us learn what is a reversible process and what is an irreversible process is Since entropy is a state function, the entropy change of a system depends only on initial and final state irrespective of the path taken. Hence, change in entropy does not differ with the nature of the processes either reversible or irreversible. Thus, the greater the disorderliness in an isolated system, the higher is the entropy So the entropy changes of these two processes are the same regardless of whether it is reversible or irreversible. So, to calculate the entropy change of the irreversible process such as freezing of supercooled liquid at -10 degree Celcius, we can take a reversible path for the same change. This is a reversible path Entropy is zero in a reversible process; it increases in an irreversible process. 34 Related Question Answers Found What is the formula for entropy change? But entropy change is quoted in energy units of J. That means that if you are calculating entropy change, you must multiply the enthalpy change value by 1000

### Reversible process (thermodynamics) - Wikipedi

We know that, change in entropy for a reversible process is given by, Now to find the value of change in entropy in an Irreversible process. Consider a system, which change its state from state point (1) to state point (2) by following the reversible path a and returns from state point (2) to state point (1) by following the irreversible path b as shown in Fig. 5.6 The entropy of reversible process: We know that the freezing of water at the meting point is a reversible process. Calculation of entropy for the system (the water) and surrounding for this freezing process is simply heat divided by melting temperature. The total entropy change of this process is thus zero, demonstrating the statement of the. After the concept of entropy has been introduced in the classical approach to thermodynamics, the definition of a reversible process may be refined in a mathematical way. If a given process can be modified by appropriate adjustment of the thermodynamic force involved so that it approaches a limit of zero entropy production, defining a limit process, and if the reverse process can be similarly. Boundaries and states. A reversible process changes the state of a system in such a way that the net change in the combined entropy of the system and its surroundings is zero. Reversible processes define the boundaries of how efficient heat engines can be in thermodynamics and engineering: a reversible process is one where no heat is lost from the system as waste, and the machine is thus as. Reversible Process. A reversible process is defined as a process in which the system and surroundings can be returned to the original conditions from the final state without producing any changes in the thermodynamics properties of the universe, As entropy cannot be consumed, the ambiance has to provide this entropy

Reversible process. Entropy is defined for a reversible process and for a system that, at all times, can be treated as being at a uniform state and thus at a uniform temperature. Reversibility is an ideal that some real processes approximate and that is often presented in study exercises No. entropy is defined for both reversible and irreversible processes. Entropy is a property of the system so it's value... When we calculate entropy for any process we consider that process to be reversible cause at the end Entropy is a point... For reversible process change in entropy of the. Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy ε = -w qH = qHÊ+ÊqL qH any process qHÊ+ÊqL qH = TH-TL TH reversible process 1 + qL qH = 1 - TL TH qL TL = - qH TH qL TL + qH TH = 0 for a Carnot Cycle S = qrev T dS = dqrev T Need to show that a. S is a state function for a general cycle: o∫Ê dqrev T = 0 b. for irreversible cycles: o∫Ê dq T. Engineers call such a process an isentropic process. Isentropic means constant entropy. The second law states that if the physical process is irreversible, the combined entropy of the system and the environment must increase. The final entropy must be greater than the initial entropy for an irreversible process: Sf > Si (irreversible process

Change in entropy for a system undergoing only reversible process may not be necessarily be zero. Change in entropy of a system = dQ/T (associated with Heat transfer in/out of the system)+ Entropy Generation (associated with Internal Irreversibili.. Entropy of a Reversible Process Certain assumptions are made when calculating the entropy of a reversible process. Probably the most important assumption is that each configuration within the process is equally probable (which it may not actually be) Entropy Change For Open System The small change of entropy of the system during a small interval is given by : For reversible process In above equation, entropy flow into the system is considered positive and entropy out-flow is considered negative. This equation is applicable to reversible process in which the heat interactions and mass transport to and from the system is accomplished. From Clausius' principle, for an INTERNALLY REVERSIBLE PROCESS, ENTROPY IN A CLOSED SYSTEM IS: T Q dS δ = ∫ δ ∫ = − = 2 1 2 1 2 1 T Q dS S S for reversible processes (9) for an IRREVERSIBLE PROCESS, ENTROPY IN A CLOSED SYSTEM IS: T Q dS δ > ∫ δ ∫ = − > 2 1 2 1 2 1 T Q dS S S defining Sgen as the entropy generated in the.

### thermodynamics - What are entropy and reversible processes

• It is important to note that in going from state 1 to state 2, entropy should be evaluated for a reversible process path only. Only then can a unique value of entropy be obtained. If this integral is performed over an arbitrary path its value will become path dependent and entropy $$s$$ will not qualify as a property
• Entropy is zero in a reversible process; it increases in an irreversible process. The ultimate fate of the universe is likely to be thermodynamic equilibrium, where the universal temperature is constant and no energy is available to do work. Entropy is also associated with the tendency toward disorder in a closed system
• Therefore, the change of entropy in a quasi-static, reversible process is zero. Become a member and unlock all Study Answers. Try it risk-free for 30 days Try it risk-free Ask a question.
• Irreversible processes take a finite time to take place whereas a reversible process takes an infinite amount of time. In a reversible process change in entropy of the universe is positive,i.e., the entropy of the universe increases. All real process are irreversible in nature
• Ch 7, Lesson B, Page 4 - Entropy Change for a Reversible, Isothermal Process. Although we are not often able to use the definition of entropy to directly evaluate ΔS, there is at least one type of process where we can get away with this
• However, as the process is reversible, the total entropy remains constant and the entropy at the beginning plus entropy in = entropy at the end plus entropy out: $m_1s_1+m_i s_i=m_2 s_2 + \frac{Q_{tot}}{T_{air}}$ The total amount of heat released can now be calculated: $Q_{tot}=298.15(2.337\times6.863+21.04\times6.863-23.37\times6.202)=4606 kJ$ The energy balance can now be used to.

### thermodynamics - Entropy change in reversible and

• The process is clearly stated as an irreversible process; therefore, we cannot simply calculate the entropy change from the actual process. However, because entropy of a system is a function of state, we can imagine a reversible process that starts from the same initial state and ends at the given final state
• Entropy Change in an Irreversible Process: From a practical point of view, no process can be irreversible process is considered. As discussed above, the entropy is dependent only on the initial and final state of the system irrespective of the pathway of the thermodynamic process. [Image will be Uploaded Soon] Thus, the change in entropy is the.
• According to the second law, in any process in which thermally insulated system goes from one macrostate to another, the entropy tends to increase, i.e., DS>0
• The irreversible process of plastic deformation occurs whenever a shear stress exceeds a critical value and causes permanent changes in atomic positions. The fundamental quantity characterizing an irreversible process is the entropy production, which is always positive at all points of the system in which the process takes place
• Change in entropy of an irreversible adiabatic process Thread starter gjb24mrspotts; Start date Mar 2, 2021; Mar 2, 2021 #1 gjb24mrspotts. 1 0. Homework Statement: We have 5.32 L of an ideal diatomic gas at 16.3 bar and 371 K. The gas is in an insulated cylinder contained with an insulated piston
• In a reversible process, the entropy of the universe stays unchanged, but in an irreversible (spontaneous) process, the entropy of the universe increases. It also increases during a non-spontaneous process that is measurable. Energy always flows downhill, which causes entropy to increase
• Strategy The process is clearly stated as an irreversible process; therefore, we cannot simply calculate the entropy change from the actual process. However, because entropy of a system is a function of state, we can imagine a reversible process that starts from the same initial state and ends at the given final state

### What is Reversible Process - Definition - Thermal Engineerin

1. Reversible and irreversible processes • 2. nd. law: no heat engine can have 100% efficiency • What is the highest efficiency that an engine could have? • Reversible process: a process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. • The system and the surroundings are returned to their initial states at the end o
2. Reversible processes require control over the process at all times. The slow expansion of a gas in a piston-cylinder system is the prototypical example for reversible processes. To further our understanding, we consider the adiabatic expansion— reversible and irreversible—of air as ideal gas at initial state p 1 = 10 bar, T 1 = 500 K to an end state of half the pressure, so that p 2 = 1 p 1
3. The more irreversible a process, the larger the entropy generated during that process. No entropy is generated during reversible processes (Sgen _ 0). • Entropy increase of the universe is a major concern not only to engineers but also to philosophers, theologians, economists, and environmentalists since entropy is viewed as a measure of the disorder (or mixed-up-ness) in the universe
4. Reconciling thermodynamic and state definitions of entropy. Entropy intuition. Maxwell's static and most quasi-static processes are reverse but there are a few special cases that aren't but the idea of a reversible process is something that happened so slowly so in this example I took off a grain of sand and I got to this state but if I.
5. In a reversible process, the entropy stays the same. A B Partition Both gases are at the same temperature and the chambers are thermally isolated from the surroundings. 2 7 Example 1: Reversible or not? Question: You have two styrofoam containers of water. Each holds 1 kg of water
6. Transfer - change of entropy in a reversible process, Generation - change of entropy when the transfer process is not reversible, i.e. irreversible. In a real (irreversible) process the change of entropy thus always is the sum of both, i.e. (i) + (ii). For a heat transfer process between two temperature levels T a and T b the two parts (i) and.
7. Entropy Postulate: If an irreversible process occurs in a closed system, the entropy S of the system always increases. Some processes are reversible. In these there is no change in entropy in a closed system. The Second Law of Thermodynamics

From #4-5 above, it is clear that dq/T is an exact differential for reversible processes dq T rev =0 where the subscript rev emphasizes that this relationship holds only for a reversible process. Dividing heat by temperature thus converts the inexact differential dq into an exact differential. We can now define a new thermodynamic state function, the entropy, η, to be dη = d Isentropic process. In thermodynamics, a process involving change without any increase or decrease of entropy. Since the entropy always increases in a spontaneous process, one must consider reversible or quasistatic processes. During a reversible process the quantity of heat transferred is directly proportional to the system's entropy change The total change in entropy for a system in any reversible process is zero. Key Terms. Carnot cycle: A theoretical thermodynamic cycle. It is the most efficient cycle for converting a given amount of thermal energy into work. reversible: Capable of returning to the original state without consumption of free energy and increase of entropy I don't know about all that with respect to work. But, in the irreversible process, less entropy is transferred to the system from the surroundings in the form of heat, and this is equivalent to the entropy of the surroundings decreasing less for the irreversible process than the reversible process Explanation: The entropy of an isolated system always increases and remains constant only when the process is reversible. 2. According to the entropy principle, the entropy of an isolated system can never decrease and remains constant only when the process is reversible? a) true. b) false. Answer:

Entropy of a thermodynamic system is a measure of disorder of molecular motion. Greater is disorder , greater is entropy. Change in entropy of a thermodynamic system is the ratio of heat supplied to absolute temperature.In an adiabatic reversible process, entropy remains constant while in any irreversible process entropy increases Entropy change for an irreversible process. The relationship between the entropy change and heat transfer across the boundary during an irreversible processes can be illustrated with a simple cycle composed of two processes, one of which is internally reversible and the other is irreversible, as shown in Figure 5.3 Entropy and life. The entropy of isolated systems cannot decrease. However, when a system is not isolated, but is in contact with its surrounding, then the entropy of this open system may decrease, with a necessary compensating increase in the entropy of the surroundings.. Living systems are characterized by their energy content and by the amount of energy flowing through the system ### Is entropy defined for reversible processes only? - Quor

1. ation with no reversible process 261 reaches the ﬁnal state, because those changes depend only on the initial and ﬁnal states and on the externa
2. a) In a reversible cyclic process the net increase in entropy of the system is zero, while an irreversible process there will be a net increase in entropy. 2) In gaseous reaction , entropy increases when the total number of mole of the products is greater than total number of moles of the reactants . e.g. for the following reactions
3. The entropy of an isolated system increases as a result of irreversible processes developing in the system. From the relationship (3.115) it follows that if a reversible process takes place in an isolated system (dQ sys = 0), the entropy of the system remains constant
4. Entropy is produced in every internally reversible process of a closed system. False In an adiabatic and internally reversible process of a closed system the entropy remains constant
5. What is Entropy ? Entropy in British English (ˈɛntrəpɪ ) NOUN... Word forms: plural -pies 1. a thermodynamic quantity that changes in a reversible process by an amount equal to the heat absorbed or emitted divided by the thermodynamic temperature
7. Reversible Process. In thermodynamics, a reversible process is defined as a process that can be reversed by inducing infinitesimal changes to some property of the system, and in so doing leaves no change in either the system or surroundings. During reversible process the entropy of the system does not increase and the system is in thermodynamic.

### Irreversible process - Wikipedi

5.12. Entropy—Introduction—Entropy—A property of a system—Change of entropy in a reversible process. 5.13. Entropy and irreversibility. 5.14. Change in entropy of the universe. 5.15. Temperature—Entropy diagram. 5.16. Characteristics of entropy. 5.17. Entropy changes for a closed system—General case for change of entropy of a gas. The process is clearly stated as an irreversible process; therefore, we cannot simply calculate the entropy change from the actual process. However, because entropy of a system is a function of state, we can imagine a reversible process that starts from the same initial state and ends at the given final state. Then, the entropy change of the.

### Entropy and reversibility :: Thermodynamics :: Rudi Winter

• Quantity the change in which is equal to the heat brought to the system in a reversible process at constant temperature divided by that temperature. Entropy is zero for an ideally ordered crystal at 0 $$\text{K}$$. In statistical thermodynamics $S=k\ \ln W$ where $$k$$ is the @B00695@ and $$W$$ the number of possible arrangements of the system
• gs
• d that the entropy generation S gen is always a positive quantity or zero. Its value is process-dependent, and thus it is not a property of the system. For. In this example (a reversible process) the Entropy is conserved. Let us turn to the irreversibility and take a look at the irreversible isothermal expansion at temperature T of one mole of monatomic ideal gas from the state A to the state B (let, for example, P A =4P B). This can be don Entropy can be related to how disordered a system is—the more it is disordered, the higher is its entropy. In any irreversible process, the universe becomes more disordered. According to the third law of thermodynamics, absolute zero temperature is unreachable. Contributors and Attributions Reversible Process. A thermodynamic process is reversible if the process can return back in such a that both the system and the surroundings return to their original states, with no other change anywhere else in the universe. It means both system and surroundings are returned to their initial states at the end of the reverse process. In the figure above, the system has undergone a change from. The entropy change of the universe is the sum of the entropy change of the system (the refrigerator in this case) and of its surroundings (the thermal reservoirs): Which is zero as expected because a Carnot refrigerator operates reversibly and the second law of thermodynamics states that for any reversible process, the entropy of the universe remains constant entropy generation gen 0 for a reversible process S In any irreversible process always entropy is generated (S gen > 0) due to irreversibilities occurring inside the system. gen Q dS S T 2 211 gen Q SS S T gen for any process, with S 0 This can be written out in a common form as an equality or Derivation of Entropy (Any Process) Entropy Balance.

If the initial process results in an entropy change of the fluid, then there must be heat transfer during the reversible, constant-P second step such that: Figure 5.6 Cycle containing an irreversible adiabatic process A to B The original irreversible process and the reversible restoration process constitute a cycle fo Irreversible Change: Case I: Free expansion: The gas expands into a vacuum for this process.. w = 0, q = 0. Since entropy is a state function, the entropy change of a system in going from volume V 1 to V 2 by any path will same as that of a reversible change.. Therefore

### 6 . 8 Some Overall Comments on Entropy, Reversible and ..

Entropy. In the irreversible process of Fig. 20 − 5, let the initial temperatures of the identical blocks L and R be 305.5 and 294.5 K , respectively, and let 215 J be the energy that must be transferred between the blocks in order to reach equilibrium. For the reversible processes of Fig. 20-6, what is Δ S for (a) block L, (b) its reservoir. Zemansky and entropy of a system during a reversible process is defined as Dittman do include a clearer definition of a reversible process on p. 188: 冕冉 冊 When a reversible process is performed, the entropy of the universe ⌬Q remains unchanged. ⌬S =

### Entropy Change in an Irreversible Process - QS Stud

1. Clearly the entropy change is the same (that's what we mean by saying entropy is a function of state.) But if we consider a cycle involving an irreversible process from 1 to 2 and a reversible process to return to 1, we have a cycle for which Clausius's theorem holds
2. e whether Cu dendrites are formed during the conversion process A., Velasco, L., Wang, D. et al. High entropy oxides for reversible energy.
3. The emission of solar radiation into surrounding space (vacuum) is essentially a reversible process through which entropy of the whole system remains unchanged [Landau and Lifshitz, 1937, section 63]. Then, the radiation itself should have a certain amount of entropy expressed b ### Entropy Change in Reversible and Irreversible Process

Learn more about this topic. 7B-3 : Entropy Change of an Isobaric Process. 6 pts. Consider a process in which 1.00 kg of saturated water vapor at 100 o C is condensed to a saturated liquid in an isobaric process by heat transfer to the surrounding air, which is at 25 o C During reversible process, the entropy of the system does not increase and all the changes in state that occur in the system are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other and the surroundings. The reversible process can be reversed completely and there is no trace left to show that the system had undergone thermodynamic change reversible process. Entropy is not directly measurable. However, the change in entropy is calculated from measurable quantities such as T, P, V and heat capacity. When the weight-heat reservoir system, discussed earlier, undergoes a spontaneous process which causes the adsorption of heat q at a constan

*In a irreversible process the total entropy of a system plus its surrounding increase. delta S univ > 0. *The universe tends toward disorder or randomness. delta S cannot be less than 0. The following is a list of things that increase or decrease entropy. 1) Gases have higher entropy than liquids, and liquids higher than solids 3. for a reversible process in an open system at steady-state with single inlet and outlet: ∑ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − = k k e i T Q m(s s ) & & 4. for an adiabatic and reversible process in an open system at steady-state (isentropic process) − e i =s s 0 ENTROPY FOR A CYCLE: ΔS = 0 and ∑ ⎟⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎝ ⎛ =− k k. the second law of thermodynamics one statement of it is that the entropy of the universe only increases and I put an exclamation mark here because it seems like a very profound statement and on a lot of levels it is and just to get us in the right frame of mind I have this image here from the Hubble telescope of of the night sky and each of these dots these are not stars these are galaxies.

Reversible Process . A process is said to be reversible if it can be reversed without leaving any trace on the surroundings. For example, let a system be taken from state 1 to state 2 with a work transfer of +5 kJ and heat transfer of -10 kJ. If the process is reversible, while taking the system from state 2 to state 1, the work transfer must be -5 kJ and heat transfer must be +10 kJ In a reversible process, the change in entropy of the universe is ' (a) > 0 (b) > 0 (c) < 0 (d) = 0 asked Oct 5, 2020 in Thermodynamics by Manish01 ( 47.5k points) thermodynamic ### Calculating entropy change: reversible vs irreversible proces

Irreversible Process. In thermodynamics, an irreversible process is defined as a process that cannot be reversed, process, that cannot return both the system and the surroundings to their original conditions. During irreversible process the entropy of the system increases. There are many factors that make a process irreversible Isentropic Process. The process during which the entropy of the system remains constant is called as isentropic process. During isentropic process the value of entropy of the system at initial and final state remains constant. Thus during isentropic process the value of ∆S=0. The isentropic process can be reversible or irreversible Entropy change in reversible adiabatic process is: Books. Physics. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. Chemistry. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. Entropy change for an adiabatic reversible process is 18930830 200+ 4.6k+.

### Entropy change in an irreversible process

The entropy of the system is changed due to the irreversible process and this change cannot be reversed. Reversible Process: There is an equilibrium between the initial state and the final state of a system where a reversible process has taken place Entropy • In applying the concept of entropy, two points are helpful. • 1. Entropy is a state property. • 2. The entropy of the universe cannot decrease. • We begin our examination of entropy by introducing the concept of the reversible process, and how it relates to the notions of maximum work and minimum work. • The second law of thermodynamics can be stated as follows Define Entropy: S [J/K], s [J/kg.K] Æ ÇÈÉ Ê Ë first for a reversible process ° ½¹! ¶ ²° then for heat transfer in a reversible process where S has units J / K ½¹! ¶ # ²° $% ± ½¹! ¶ # ²°µ$ % further, for non-flow processes we can write ° ¾ °& ¶ °' °& ¶ (°) and for (reversible) work transfer we can write thus, for non-flow processes we have an expression for. Irreversible process Irreversible process-proceeds spontaneously -associated with increasing disorder The reversal of an irreversible process is improbable ( even though it may be possible according to the First Law of Thermodynamics) Entropy Heat Entropy is a state function that governs the availability of heat to do work. Disorder/Orde Isothermal expansion can surely be irreversible if you make it so. In fact, any process is usually at least a bit irreversible, and truly 100% reversible processes are impossible. We can construct an irreversible isothermal expansion to disprove the premise of the question (which states that all isothermal expansions are reversible) To formalize statements of this kind in a more general and quantitative way, a state variable called entropy is defined, and the second law is expressed by saying that the overall entropy (of an isolated system) can never decrease. It follows that a process in which entropy increases is irreversible Nitrogen (N 2) undergoes an internally reversible process from 6 bar, 247°C during which pν 1.2 = constant.The initial volume is 0.1 m 3 and the work for the process is 50 kJ. Assuming ideal gas behavior, and neglecting kinetic and potential energy effects, determine heat transfer, in kJ, and the entropy change, in kJ/K Thus from we see that the entropy change of a system during for a reversible, adiabatic process is zero. But note that both qualifiers are needed; the entropy of a non-isolated system can change during a reversible process (and the entropy change of the surroundings will compensate), and an irreversible change to an isolated system will increase the entropy (see Ex. 1&4) During reversible adiabatic expansion, such as occurs in a work-generating turbine, energy (U) decreases and so decreases entropy, while volume (V) increases and so increases entropy. This process is labeled isentropic, meaning that entropy remains constant, which means that the two changes in entropy exactly cancel each other. Not almost. Exactly The entropy increase in an irreversible cyclic process. Explanation: Another form of the second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant; it never decreases. Entropy is zero in a reversible process; it increases in an irreversible process The entropy change during a reversible process, sometimes called an internally reversible process, is defined as dS Q T SS Q T net net = −=z δ δ intrev intrev 21 1 2 Consider the cycle 1-A-2-B-1, shown below, where process A is arbitrary that is, it can be either reversible or irreversible, and process B is internally reversible. δ δδ Q. Supplementary Notes on Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 1 Reversible Process A reversible process is one which, having taken place, can be reversed without leaving a change in either the system or the surroundings. 2 Entropy Consider a closed system such as a piston-cylinder assembly

A reversible process is one in which the timescale is assumed to be so slow that every intermediate state deviates only infinitesimally from equilibrium. Every intermediate state is exactly described by a set of macroscopic thermodynamic variables and may be assumed to be at equilibrium. Since every intermediate state is exactly known, the process may be reversed at an infinitesimally slow rate Reversible process (thermodynamics) - Second law of thermodynamics - Joule expansion - Dissipation - Thermodynamics - Ilya Prigogine - Entropy production - Precautionary principle - Friction - Entropy (arrow of time) - Thermodynamic process - Thermodynamic state - Infinitesimal - Entropy - State function - Premixed flame - Engine knocking - Thermodynamic system - Uncertainty principle - Rudolf. Entropy Change Property diagrams (T-s and h-s diagrams) from the definition of the entropy, it is known that Q=TdS during a reversible process. The total heat transfer during this process is given by Qreversible = TdS Therefore, it is useful to consider the T-S diagram for a reversible process involving heat transfer Irreversible processes take a finite time to take place whereas a reversible process takes an infinite amount of time. In a reversible process change in entropy of the universe is positive,i.e., the entropy of the universe increases. All real process are irreversible in nature. Keeping this in view, what is irreversible process example

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